Why greenhouse gas removal? 

Achieving net zero requires dramatic reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide, but it also requires creating and scaling up a global Greenhouse Gas Removal (GGR). The UK government’s Net Zero Strategy states that GGR is essential to compensate for residual emissions from hard-to-decarbonise sectors. This is an unprecedented challenge. Key technologies need to fall in cost, business models need to be developed, economic policies and legal and regulatory frameworks need to be put in place in a manner that is socially and environmentally acceptable and robust. In the UK alone, this burgeoning industry needs to be capable of removing around 100 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year by 2050


CO2RE has three overarching objectives: 1. To provide a portfolio of robust, implementable and equitable options for policy and governance, supporting bankable business models for sustainable GGR deployment; 2. To develop a coherent evaluation framework for GGRs and accelerate the development of scalable options; and 3. To build capacity by linking initiatives within the Programme with other national and international programmes and supporting decision-making.

Our Approach

CO2RE is conducting cross-cutting research on the environmental, economic, social, cultural, ethical, legal and governance issues around GGR. The Hub co-ordinates across the GGR-D Programme (linking to five Demonstrator projects), connects to other relevant programmes nationally and internationally, and commissions grants through a Flexible Fund. Our work is structured around six needs for achieving GGR at scale by 2050, involving transformations across political, social, technological and economic systems: a clear vision; public support for GGR; innovation; long-term, government-backed incentives; robust monitoring, reporting and verification; and decision-making tools for businesses, policymakers and others. CO2RE works collaboratively with GGR developers, businesses, investors and policy makers to ensure research is solutions-led.

Principal Investigator

Professor Cameron Hepburn, University of Oxford

Research team / project partners

Research team: University of Oxford, University of Manchester, University College London, University of Edinburgh, Imperial College London, University of Leeds, University of Bristol